Adeno-associated virus gets its name because it is often found in cells that are simultaneously infected with adenovirus. AAV are Parvoviridae: icosahedral, 20-25 nm in diameter; single stranded DNA genome with a protein capsid. AAV is dependent on the presence of wild type adenovirus or herpesvirus for replication; in the absence of these helper viruses, AAV will stably integrate into the host cell genome. Co-infection with helper virus triggers a lytic cycle as do some agents which appropriately perturb host cells. Wild type AAV integrates preferentially into human chromosome 19q13.3-qter; recombinant vectors lose this specificity and appear to integrate randomly, thereby posing a theoretical risk of insertional mutagenesis.
What are the hazards?
No known pathology for wild type AAV serotype 2.
Not documented definitively. Infection apparently via mouth, esophageal, or intestinal mucosa.
Ingestion, droplet exposure of the mucous membrane, direct injection; insertional mutagenesis; integration and expression of oncogenes or potential oncogenes.
|Exposure of mucus membrane (eyes, nose, mouth)||Use of safety goggles or full face shields. Use of appropriate face mask|
|Injection||Use of safety needles; NEVER re-cap needle or remove needle from syringe|
|Aerosol inhalation||Use of appropriate respiratory protection|
|Direct contact with skin||Gloves, lab coat, closed shoes|
The above PPE are often required IN ADDITION to working in a certified Biosafety Cabinet.
Susceptibility to disinfectants: Susceptible to 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, 0.25% sodium dodecyl sulfate
Use in Lab: BSL-1; BSL-2 in the presence of helper virus
Use with Animals: ABSL-1 housing; ABSL-2 housing in the presence of helper virus.
No specific treatment.